4 Pronouns [R]
Syntactically, pronouns function like whole noun phrases and not like nouns as the name would suggest. The only word which can be determined like a noun and is regarded as a pronoun is the word one.
(1) Which<DQ> one<NN1>? (A8L.frt)
(2) A first time garden is usually small and certainly the typical<AAVP> one<NN1> I am imagining for this series. (A3E.frt)
(3) [This] is in itself an indication of one<NN1> 's<PSX> party allegiance. (A8L.frt)
The class of pronouns is a closed class. The pronouns are divided into the three main subclasses common pronouns [RD..., RG..., RP..., RS, RX...], interrogative pronouns [RQ..., RI...] and relative pronouns [RR...]. Existential there [RE] makes up a class of its own, because of its unique syntactic features and its high frequency.
4.1 Common Pronouns
4.1.1 Demonstrative Pronouns [RD1, RD2]
Demonstrative pronouns have number opposition and their semantic properties differ as to near and distant reference. Thus, there are only four different possibilities this, these, that and those. As the class of demonstrative pronouns is a closed class, the only difficulty in dealing with it is the identity of the form of the demonstrative pronouns with the demonstrative determiners.
The singular demonstrative pronoun very often refers to a whole preceding sentence or statement. Only sometimes it refers to one noun phrase. The singular demonstrative pronoun cannot be modified.
(1) This<RD1> is taking the idea one step further. ( AHV.frt)
(2) So you can't even say that<RD1>. (A8L.frt)
(3) Some clubs feeling the pinch might have to start forcing their players to play on a day like this<RD1>. (story.1#350.frt)
In contrast to the singular demonstrative pronoun the plural demonstrative pronoun can be modified. Quite frequently the demonstrative pronoun those it is modified by relatives clauses or prepositional phrases. (2-4) The reference of the plural demonstrative determiner is very often one noun phrase.
(1) The most spectacular of these<RD2> have been some magnificent specimens of Verdigris agaric ... (A8L.frt)
(2) [P]sychologists looked for weakness in the young draftees and weeded out those<RD2> who<RRS> seemed sentimental. (A91.frt)